Purpose This study presents a method to evaluate the efficacy of the start techniques’ biomechanics in swimming using a kinematic reference data-set. Methods The biomechanics of the start techniques was derived by the performances of ten regional swimmers using a marker-based stereoscopic approach. Three start techniques were analyzed: grab start, rear track start, and front track start. The kinematic reference data-set was compiled from data available from the literature in biomechanics of the high-level swimmers. The evaluating method was based on three parameters: (1) The horizontal component of the dive speed; (2) The angle between the line joining the center of mass of the swimmer with the intersection point of the pool-water plane and the pool edge plane; (3) The distance between the block and the center of mass of the swimmer. Results Differences (p < 0.05) in the block position during the start were found between the national swimmers and the references in grab start, front track start, and in rear track start. Before the dive, national swimmers jump up from the block in opposition to the high-level swimmers that drop from the block such as the literature revealed. Conclusions This study allows: (1) To formulate a model of comparative analysis of data from the literature; (2) To obtain a three-dimensional model of the swimmers using a handy low-cost stereoscopic system; (3) To compare different multi-dimensional biomechanical models designed to describe the diving task. This approach would provide an innovative tool to evaluate the efficacy of the start technique and to assist coaches and trainers to improve their training programs.

A kinematic analysis to evaluate the start techniques’ efficacy in swimming

FORMICOLA, DONATO;RAINOLDI, Alberto
2014-01-01

Abstract

Purpose This study presents a method to evaluate the efficacy of the start techniques’ biomechanics in swimming using a kinematic reference data-set. Methods The biomechanics of the start techniques was derived by the performances of ten regional swimmers using a marker-based stereoscopic approach. Three start techniques were analyzed: grab start, rear track start, and front track start. The kinematic reference data-set was compiled from data available from the literature in biomechanics of the high-level swimmers. The evaluating method was based on three parameters: (1) The horizontal component of the dive speed; (2) The angle between the line joining the center of mass of the swimmer with the intersection point of the pool-water plane and the pool edge plane; (3) The distance between the block and the center of mass of the swimmer. Results Differences (p < 0.05) in the block position during the start were found between the national swimmers and the references in grab start, front track start, and in rear track start. Before the dive, national swimmers jump up from the block in opposition to the high-level swimmers that drop from the block such as the literature revealed. Conclusions This study allows: (1) To formulate a model of comparative analysis of data from the literature; (2) To obtain a three-dimensional model of the swimmers using a handy low-cost stereoscopic system; (3) To compare different multi-dimensional biomechanical models designed to describe the diving task. This approach would provide an innovative tool to evaluate the efficacy of the start technique and to assist coaches and trainers to improve their training programs.
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Swimming; Biomechanics; Modeling; Technical efficacy; Start techniques
Donato Formicola; Alberto Rainoldi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/158521
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