Wastewater refers to any water whose quality has been compromised by human activities. It includes liquid waste discharged from domestic homes, agricultural commercial sectors, pharmaceutical sectors, and hospitals. Hospital wastewater (HWW) can contain hazardous substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, chemical hazardous substances, pathogens, and radioisotopes. Due to these substances, hospital wastewater can represent a chemical, biological, and physical risk for public and environmental health. Nevertheless, very frequently there are no legal requirements for hospital effluent treatment prior to its discharge into the municipal collector or directly onto surface water after pretreatment. In this chapter a brief introduction about the role of hospital wastewater on the environmental contamination was reported. Subsequently the main principles on the hospital wastewater reported in different legislation around the world have been addressed. Moreover the main content reported in the WHO guidelines, EPA guidelines, and guidelines about radionuclide releases to the environment from hospitals was described. A case study of excellence on hospital wastewater management was also illustrated. The chapter ends with some brief final remarks.

Hospital Wastewater: Existing Regulations and Current Trends in Management

Carraro E.;Bonetta Si.;Bonetta Sa.
2018

Abstract

Wastewater refers to any water whose quality has been compromised by human activities. It includes liquid waste discharged from domestic homes, agricultural commercial sectors, pharmaceutical sectors, and hospitals. Hospital wastewater (HWW) can contain hazardous substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, chemical hazardous substances, pathogens, and radioisotopes. Due to these substances, hospital wastewater can represent a chemical, biological, and physical risk for public and environmental health. Nevertheless, very frequently there are no legal requirements for hospital effluent treatment prior to its discharge into the municipal collector or directly onto surface water after pretreatment. In this chapter a brief introduction about the role of hospital wastewater on the environmental contamination was reported. Subsequently the main principles on the hospital wastewater reported in different legislation around the world have been addressed. Moreover the main content reported in the WHO guidelines, EPA guidelines, and guidelines about radionuclide releases to the environment from hospitals was described. A case study of excellence on hospital wastewater management was also illustrated. The chapter ends with some brief final remarks.
Hospital Wastewaters - Characteristics, Management, Treatment and Environmental Risks
Springer International Publishing
1
16
Hospital wastewater, Management, Regulation
Carraro E., Bonetta Si., Bonetta Sa.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1661711
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