The interplay between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the innate immune response is a critical process that has attracted the attention of many research groups. The emerging scenario is that the immune response of an HCMV-infected host is mediated by a plethora of viral DNA sensors acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are capable of inhibiting indirectly viral infection through the activation of two distinct downstream signaling cascades. The first one triggers the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons (IFNs), while the second one leads to inflammasome complex formation, which in turn promotes the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). An additional first line of defense against HCMV is represented by a multiplicity of constitutively expressed restriction factors that inhibit viral replication by directly interfering with the activity of essential viral/cellular genes. Here, we take a closer look at some of the most representative intrinsic restriction factors involved in HCMV infection (e.g. IFI16, ND10 complex, viperin and APOBEC3) and review our current understanding of the mechanisms that HCMV has evolved to counteract both IFN and inflammasome responses.

Modulation of the innate immune response by human cytomegalovirus. [*Dell'Oste V., Landolfo S. co-corresponding authors]

Biolatti Matteo
First
;
Gugliesi Francesca;Dell'Oste Valentina;Landolfo Santo
Last
2018

Abstract

The interplay between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and the innate immune response is a critical process that has attracted the attention of many research groups. The emerging scenario is that the immune response of an HCMV-infected host is mediated by a plethora of viral DNA sensors acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are capable of inhibiting indirectly viral infection through the activation of two distinct downstream signaling cascades. The first one triggers the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons (IFNs), while the second one leads to inflammasome complex formation, which in turn promotes the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). An additional first line of defense against HCMV is represented by a multiplicity of constitutively expressed restriction factors that inhibit viral replication by directly interfering with the activity of essential viral/cellular genes. Here, we take a closer look at some of the most representative intrinsic restriction factors involved in HCMV infection (e.g. IFI16, ND10 complex, viperin and APOBEC3) and review our current understanding of the mechanisms that HCMV has evolved to counteract both IFN and inflammasome responses.
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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567134818302375?via%3Dihub
Biolatti Matteo, Gugliesi Francesca, Dell'Oste Valentina, Landolfo Santo,
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1675177
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