Abstract: The dispersion protocol used to administer nanomaterials (NMs) in in vitro cellular tests might affect their toxicity. For this reason, several dispersion procedures have been proposed to harmonize the toxicological methods, allowing for the comparison of the data that were obtained by different laboratories. At the same time, several techniques and methods are available to monitor the identity of theNMsin the cell media. However, while the characterization of suspensions of engineered NMs having narrow size distribution may be easily performed, the description of aggregated NMs forming polydispersions is still challenging. In the present study, sub-micrometric/nanometric TiO2, SiO2, and CeO2 were dispersed in cell media by using two different dispersion protocols, with and without albumin (0.5%) and with different sonication procedures. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) was used to characterize NMs in stock solutions and culture media. Pitfalls that affect DLS measurements were identified and, guidance on a critical analysis of the results provided. The NMs were then tested for their cytotoxicity (LDH leakage) toward murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and PMA-activated human monocytes (THP-1). As markers of pro-inflammatory response, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine IL-1beta production were measured on RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells, respectively. The pre-treatment with albumin added to a strong sonication treatment increases the stability and homogeneity of the suspensions of nanometric samples, but not of the submicrometric-samples. Nevertheless, while TiO2 and CeO2 were non-cytotoxic in any conditions, differences in cytotoxicity, NO, and IL-1beta releases were found for the SiO2, depending upon the protocol. Overall, the results suggest that there is no one-fits-all method valid for all NMs, since each class of NMs respond differently. The definition of validated procedures and parameters for the selection of the most appropriate method of dispersion for each class of NM appears to be a more efficacious strategy for the harmonization of the dispersion protocols.

Applicability and limitations in the characterization of poly-dispersed engineered nanomaterials in cell media by dinamic light scattering (DLS)

Arianna Marucco;Elisabetta Aldieri;Riccardo Leinardi;Enrico Bergamaschi;Chiara Riganti;Ivana Fenoglio
2019-01-01

Abstract

Abstract: The dispersion protocol used to administer nanomaterials (NMs) in in vitro cellular tests might affect their toxicity. For this reason, several dispersion procedures have been proposed to harmonize the toxicological methods, allowing for the comparison of the data that were obtained by different laboratories. At the same time, several techniques and methods are available to monitor the identity of theNMsin the cell media. However, while the characterization of suspensions of engineered NMs having narrow size distribution may be easily performed, the description of aggregated NMs forming polydispersions is still challenging. In the present study, sub-micrometric/nanometric TiO2, SiO2, and CeO2 were dispersed in cell media by using two different dispersion protocols, with and without albumin (0.5%) and with different sonication procedures. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) was used to characterize NMs in stock solutions and culture media. Pitfalls that affect DLS measurements were identified and, guidance on a critical analysis of the results provided. The NMs were then tested for their cytotoxicity (LDH leakage) toward murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and PMA-activated human monocytes (THP-1). As markers of pro-inflammatory response, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine IL-1beta production were measured on RAW 264.7 and THP-1 cells, respectively. The pre-treatment with albumin added to a strong sonication treatment increases the stability and homogeneity of the suspensions of nanometric samples, but not of the submicrometric-samples. Nevertheless, while TiO2 and CeO2 were non-cytotoxic in any conditions, differences in cytotoxicity, NO, and IL-1beta releases were found for the SiO2, depending upon the protocol. Overall, the results suggest that there is no one-fits-all method valid for all NMs, since each class of NMs respond differently. The definition of validated procedures and parameters for the selection of the most appropriate method of dispersion for each class of NM appears to be a more efficacious strategy for the harmonization of the dispersion protocols.
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https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/12/23/3833
nanomaterials, dispersion,hydrodynamic diameter,standardization, cytotoxicity
Arianna Marucco, Elisabetta Aldieri, Riccardo Leinardi, Enrico Bergamaschi, Chiara Riganti, Ivana Fenoglio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1716950
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