The finest fraction of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) carries a large number of pollutants, some of which are assessed as genotoxic, such as some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). In many countries, PM2.5 in combination with some PAHs are monitored to assess the concentrations of pollutants, while the air quality is rarely assessed by means of biological assays. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between these two pollutants and human adverse effects, in particular on the respiratory system. Nevertheless, other air pollutants can induce a biological effect and the cumulative effect of the PM2.5 complex mixture may not be easily deduced by PM2.5 and PAH levels. This study aimed to combine the legislative monitoring of PM2.5 with the study of its mutagenicity. During a full year, daily air samples were collected in nine sites of the North-western Italy air quality monitoring network (Piedmont Region) and PM2.5 and PAH concentrations were assessed. Monthly pooled organic extracts were tested with the Salmonella assay using TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without metabolic activation (±S9), and using TA98NR and YG1021 strains. In all sites, a positive response was observed for TA98 and TA100 especially without S9. A significant mutagenic seasonal variation was detected, with higher mutagenicity in winter and lower responses in summer (average total mutagenicity ratio 27:1). The response of TA98NR and YG1021 compared with TA98 suggested a significant contribution of nitro-compounds to the mutagenicity. No significant differences were found between urban background and rural sites denoting the spread of pollution. A mutagenicity increase, 1.28 Total Mutagenicity Factor/20 m3, was observed for each PM2.5 μg increment. PAH levels and corresponding Toxic Equivalent Factors were highly correlated to mutagenicity results. This work confirms that complex environmental mixtures can be appropriately assessed through the implementation of physical-chemical analyzes with bioassays able to evaluate synergistic and antagonistic effects, especially for highest and lowest pollution settings.

The North-western Italy air quality monitoring network: Improving experience of PM2.5 assessment with mutagenicity assay

Traversi D.;Gea M.;Schiliro' T.
Last
2021

Abstract

The finest fraction of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) carries a large number of pollutants, some of which are assessed as genotoxic, such as some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). In many countries, PM2.5 in combination with some PAHs are monitored to assess the concentrations of pollutants, while the air quality is rarely assessed by means of biological assays. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between these two pollutants and human adverse effects, in particular on the respiratory system. Nevertheless, other air pollutants can induce a biological effect and the cumulative effect of the PM2.5 complex mixture may not be easily deduced by PM2.5 and PAH levels. This study aimed to combine the legislative monitoring of PM2.5 with the study of its mutagenicity. During a full year, daily air samples were collected in nine sites of the North-western Italy air quality monitoring network (Piedmont Region) and PM2.5 and PAH concentrations were assessed. Monthly pooled organic extracts were tested with the Salmonella assay using TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without metabolic activation (±S9), and using TA98NR and YG1021 strains. In all sites, a positive response was observed for TA98 and TA100 especially without S9. A significant mutagenic seasonal variation was detected, with higher mutagenicity in winter and lower responses in summer (average total mutagenicity ratio 27:1). The response of TA98NR and YG1021 compared with TA98 suggested a significant contribution of nitro-compounds to the mutagenicity. No significant differences were found between urban background and rural sites denoting the spread of pollution. A mutagenicity increase, 1.28 Total Mutagenicity Factor/20 m3, was observed for each PM2.5 μg increment. PAH levels and corresponding Toxic Equivalent Factors were highly correlated to mutagenicity results. This work confirms that complex environmental mixtures can be appropriately assessed through the implementation of physical-chemical analyzes with bioassays able to evaluate synergistic and antagonistic effects, especially for highest and lowest pollution settings.
195
110699
110706
Biomonitoring; Nitro-compounds; PAH; PM2.5; Salmonella assay; Biological Assay; Humans; Italy; Mutagenicity Tests; Mutagens; Particulate Matter; Air Pollutants; Air Pollution; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Marangon D.; Traversi D.; D'Agostino A.M.; Gea M.; Fontana M.; Schiliro' T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2318/1790125
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