Background: Heater–cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiopulmonary bypass may become colonized with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium chimaera. Recently, a worldwide investigation conducted in hospitalized infected patients has detected M. chimaera in several Stockert 3T HCUs manufactured by LivaNova. Aim: Microbiological surveillance on Stockert 3T (LivaNova) and Maquet HCU40 (Getinge) devices as well as an evaluation of the efficacy of their recommended decontamination protocols. Methods: A total of 308 water samples were collected from 29 HCUs: 264 samples were collected from 17 Stockert 3T HCUs and 44 samples from 12 Maquet HCU40 devices. Samples were tested for total viable counts (TVCs) at both 22 and 36°C, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, and NTM. The microbiological surveillance began in June 2017 and ran until October 2019. Findings: A total of 308 HCU water samples were analysed, 65.5% of which yielded NTM. The most frequently colonized device with NTM was the Stockert 3T (88.2%), with a frequency of positive samples of 59.5% (157/264). The Maquet HCU40 devices less frequently yielded NTM (33.3%), with a frequency of positive water samples of 13.6% (6/44). Disinfection procedures were effective in reducing TVCs of bacteria with the exception of NTM species. NTM were detected in both pre-disinfection (50.1%) and post-disinfection (55.7%) samples, and no significant association was found between disinfection and NTM results both in Stockert 3T and Maquet HCU40 devices. Conclusion: This study suggests that manufacturers' procedures for disinfection are ineffective and/or inadequate. Until effective disinfection protocols become available, the only way to minimize the risk of NTM contamination is to closely monitor the water quality in the HCU, keep it as clean as possible, and treat it like any other biohazardous material.

Failure to eradicate non-tuberculous mycobacteria upon disinfection of heater–cooler units: results of a microbiological investigation in northwestern Italy

Ditommaso S.;Giacomuzzi M.;Memoli G.;Zotti C. M.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: Heater–cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiopulmonary bypass may become colonized with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium chimaera. Recently, a worldwide investigation conducted in hospitalized infected patients has detected M. chimaera in several Stockert 3T HCUs manufactured by LivaNova. Aim: Microbiological surveillance on Stockert 3T (LivaNova) and Maquet HCU40 (Getinge) devices as well as an evaluation of the efficacy of their recommended decontamination protocols. Methods: A total of 308 water samples were collected from 29 HCUs: 264 samples were collected from 17 Stockert 3T HCUs and 44 samples from 12 Maquet HCU40 devices. Samples were tested for total viable counts (TVCs) at both 22 and 36°C, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, and NTM. The microbiological surveillance began in June 2017 and ran until October 2019. Findings: A total of 308 HCU water samples were analysed, 65.5% of which yielded NTM. The most frequently colonized device with NTM was the Stockert 3T (88.2%), with a frequency of positive samples of 59.5% (157/264). The Maquet HCU40 devices less frequently yielded NTM (33.3%), with a frequency of positive water samples of 13.6% (6/44). Disinfection procedures were effective in reducing TVCs of bacteria with the exception of NTM species. NTM were detected in both pre-disinfection (50.1%) and post-disinfection (55.7%) samples, and no significant association was found between disinfection and NTM results both in Stockert 3T and Maquet HCU40 devices. Conclusion: This study suggests that manufacturers' procedures for disinfection are ineffective and/or inadequate. Until effective disinfection protocols become available, the only way to minimize the risk of NTM contamination is to closely monitor the water quality in the HCU, keep it as clean as possible, and treat it like any other biohazardous material.
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Cardiac surgery; Disinfection; Heater–cooler unit; Microbiological monitoring; Mycobacterium chimaera; Polymerase chain reaction; Cardiac Surgical Procedures; Disinfectants; Disinfection; Equipment Contamination; Heating; Humans; Italy; Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium Infections; Nontuberculous Mycobacteria; Water Microbiology
Ditommaso S.; Giacomuzzi M.; Memoli G.; Zotti C.M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2318/1794724
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